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    While my shop is also uninsulated, about the lowest temp it will go is about 45 degrees F. And I find that uncomfortable; hardy soul to be able to work in a shop at sub-freezing temps!

    The main purpose of lubricant for diamond stones is to help move the metal swarf out of the way. You can theoretically use the diamond stones dry; you just then need to wipe away the swarf with a rag of some sort much more frequently. However, it does mean you have multiple options for the lubrication medium besides water.

    A light oil can work. As can alcohol. I have also used mineral spirits (freezing point is -60C), although you then probably want to wear gloves.

    Another option would be to use a fine or x-fine oilstone and use it for the final honing step. I usually don’t go through all of my diamond grits when I sharpen if I don’t have to.


    My own inexpert thoughts on the jointer plane. I do have one that I’m still learning to use effectively, but can share some thoughts.

    Historically, the term “jointer plane” was used for a plane that would flatten the edges of long boards being prepared for edge jointing, aka, joining two boards edge-to-edge to make a wider board. If you have a board that is longer than say, 3 or 4 feet (~1 to 1.3 meters), then the jointer plane works well for edge jointing. The extra length ensures flatness over the longer distance, and the extra width is helpful when dimensioning stock thicker than 4/4. The extra weight takes some getting used to, however. And, to be honest, a jack plane can work just as well (Paul uses the 4 or the 5 to joint very long boards).

    The other common use of the jointer plane is to flatten the faces of boards, which historically was the province of the try (or truing) plane. The try plane would be used after the scrub or fore or jack plane was used to do the initial flattening of rough stock, and basically removed the scallops and other marks left by the coarser tool. So the try/jointer plane is useful when flattening long (>4-5 feet) rough stock that has been prepped with a fore plane. However, if you are working with dimensioned wood, you can probably get by with a jack plane. Today, the terms try and jointer plane are used interchangeably.

    A lot of it is personal preference. I like using my jointer on the edges, not so much on the faces.


    I cannot directly answer your question, as I don’t know what was used for Paul’s workshop shelves. However, there are several video series on building shelves in the projects, one of which (hanging wall shelf) is a free project. And at least some, if not all, use some form of joinery, typically either a dado or stopped dado.

    Commercially purchased shelving units often have movable shelves. So instead of joinery, they usually have removable hardware that supports the shelves from underneath. Built-in shelves do not always have joinery either, but that’s a whole topic in and of itself.

    Many years ago when I was at the university, I built my very first set of bookshelves out of construction pine, and simply nailed everything together without any joinery; NOT RECOMMENDED!! I ended up discarding it when I moved out a year later.

    As for attaching it to a wall, it does depend upon your wall material: plasterboard on studs, concrete block, brick, wood, etc. Your best bet is to look on Youtube or Google for advice, as there are potentially a lot of options based on your workshop. One option is to build a French cleat (Paul has a video on building one).


    I am not sure that’s entirely correct. If the PVA glue has not yet cured, you should be able to remove it with a wet rag, a chisel, or some sandpaper, depending upon how much it has started to harden. To get the best glue joint, you should sand it down to fresh wood, but I don’t believe that it is absolutely necessary if sanding it down completely is impractical. Just a bit of sandpaper in the mortise or tenon (depending upon which you are keeping) should be all you need. I agree that once completely cured, removing enough of the PVA from the joint without damaging the underlying wood will be a real pain, and may not be practical in some cases.

    Also, if you are making a new side anyway, you could always cut the new mortise to match the dimensions of the freshly sanded tenon.

    I’m also not sure it’s correct to say that cured hide glue can be “reactivated”. Cured hide glue can be reversed with heat and moisture, but once loosened it should be removed if possible. It is more forgiving in that hide glue will bond to a thin layer of hide glue on an existing joint, but even so it will work better on bare wood.

    Where dried PVA can pose a problem is with finishes. Even a thin layer can prevent some finishes from penetrating, and sanding it all away can be difficult. Hide glue is more forgiving in that respect. Also, hide glue is more easily reversed after it cures.

    Like everything, whether you use PVA, hot hide glue, or liquid hide glue, each type of glue has its benefits and tradeoffs.


    I’ve built a small, Japanese-style toolbox with poplar, and it has held up fine. Of course, a lot depends upon how it’s used. Both poplar and white pine are similar in their hardness (or lack thereof), and are similar in density.

    The advantage of pine or poplar is that they are light. A harder wood like, say, Sapele will typically quite a bit more dense, and the large joiner’s tool chest (especially with all the tills) made from it would be quite heavy even before you added the tools. I believe the joiners toolbox has a skirt around the bottom, which will help protect the main carcase. The biggest disadvantage IMHO is the inevitable ding while a panel is sitting on the bench waiting to be assembled tends to dent the softer woods. Finally, the low cost of poplar is attractive for a workshop project.

    The weight is probably less of an issue for the smaller tool chest (for which I believe Paul did use Sapele). Paul didn’t paint his, but that doesn’t prevent you from painting yours if you prefer.


    I have a love/hate relationship with honing guides. I’ve used three and share my thoughts below.

    I will say that the honing guide was most useful when starting out, as it removed a variable. With the guide, I no longer needed to worry about the angle, so I could focus on getting the blade sharp. Over time, I’ve stopped using it on chisels and my scrub plane blade; I now do those free hand. I know some folks obsess over the angle of their chisels, but I haven’t seen any difference that a couple of degrees makes. I still use the guide for my plane blades, and in particular my bevel-up blades where the angle is more critical. On to my review:

    1.) Eclipse-style guide. There are lots of clones, as I’m not sure Eclipse even makes one anymore. These are easy to use. You do need to create a jig out of a couple of blocks of wood screwed onto a plywood platform in order to set the angle, but that’s a one time event. The machining is not great, but there are youtube videos that show how to modify it. They’re cheap enough that it’s easy to buy one and then decide to upgrade later on.

    2.) Veritas guide. I’m in the minority on this view, but I really don’t like it. I find the setup very fiddly, and I could never get it tight enough. The plane blade or chisel always ended up shifting side to side. But I do know others that really like the Veritas guide, so YMMV.

    3.) Lie-Nielsen guide. Operates much like the Eclipse guide, but the machining is a lot nicer, and it holds plane blades much more securely. Like the Eclipse guide, you do need to make the angle setting jig, and the distances are different than with the Eclipse guide. LN has detailed info on their web site on how to do this. The drawback is that it is very expensive, and you need special attachments if you want to do chisels (and there are 3 of them). However, they have attachments for small blades and skew blades that the Eclipse does not have.


    I realize that this is an old thread, so my apologies, but some thoughts on resewing:

    If you start with your typical 3/4″ thick board and resaw it to get two boards, you will most likely end up with both boards being about 1/4″ thick by the time you’re done. Whether you use a rip saw or a band saw, you’ll need to take into account the saw kerf, which is going to be substantial given the type of saw or saw blade you need; any wandering on the cut, which is a possibility given the amount of cutting you have to do; and the flattening and smoothing of the rough surface that results. And don’t be surprised if the re-sawn board cups, bows, and twists all over the place, especially if it’s kiln dried wood from the home center.

    If you need a 3/8″ board, you could make the cut line at slightly proud of 1/2″; your off cut will be very thin, but you still may be able to find a use for it.

    If the amount you need to remove is 1/4″ or less, you’ll normally be better off with planing it away.

    Resewing is most useful when starting with 5/4 or thicker stock and you want to get two thinner boards. And, if you’re going to resaw, start with something like pine to practice on. It has its own challenges, even when using a bandsaw. It’s best not to use hard maple as your practice board; DAMHIKT.


    The 45 combo plane is a fairly complex tool, with lots of little pieces and parts. Many of the ones you see for sale on Ebay are missing a key component like a fence or a screw. You can find ones that are complete, but they tend to be a lot more expensive.

    IMO, it is easier to find a good rebate plane and plough plane than it is to find a complete and working 45. But YMMV.


    Bow can be difficult to remove, as sometimes internal stresses will cause the board to bow again even after it’s been flattened. First, try shimming the board as noted above. If the bow comes back, you may need to decide if you can live with it. If it’s a thin panel, often the bow can be straightened out when you do your joinery. In some cases, the bow doesn’t matter at all (within reason, of course).

    However, in some cases, if you need the board to be dead straight, it may be necessary to use a different board. Note that kiln dried boards from the big box stores are notorious for having a lot of stress.


    Tools for Working Wood sells a horse butt leather strop that can either be used as is, or glued to a wooden base. Also, as noted, craft store leather will work as well, and can also be used for other purposes as well.


    For a sawhorse, you really don’t want anything slippery such as a varnish finish. Unfinished is fine. BLO doesn’t build, so it will work as well. A mix of BLO, polyurethane varnish and mineral spirits will work provided you keep the varnish to no more than half or so of the mixture.

    Finally, as noted, the term “Tung Oil” can be one of 3 things:

    a.) Pure Tung Oil, in which case it will nearly always be called Pure (or 100% pure) Tung Oil. Pure Tung Oil is not a particularly desirable finish as it takes a really long time to cure as compared to BLO.

    b.) A mix of oil, varnish, and mineral spirits, in which case it will be called “Tung Oil Finish”. Which makes it really no different than “Danish Oil”, “Teak Oil”, or your own mix of oil (Tung or BLO), varnish, and mineral spirits. Everyone has their own personal favorites.

    c.) A thinned varnish (with no oil mixed in), in which case it will also be called “Tung Oil Finish”. The problem is that such a finish will behave very differently from the other two, so you need to know what you’re buying. You don’t want a thinned varnish on your sawhorses, or they will end up with slippery surfaces.


    It seems as if the discussion drifted from “low-angle vs Bailey-style” jack plane to “new vs used”, which is not uncommon. Again, some of this depends upon your goals, whether you are looking for one general purpose tool vs. looking something dedicated to rough stock preparation and removal. A Bailey style jack plane can be used equally well for both, but the intended use may sway your decision a bit. Some thoughts:

    Used: If you’re buying used, you should expect to have to “fettle” the plane a bit to get it in working condition. Paul Sellers does have a T&T video on restoring a bench plane that is worth viewing. If you’re looking for a general purpose plane, it would be ideal to view it in person to be sure it’s not missing any screws, and that the adjustments all work as intended, and that the sole is reasonably flat and square, and not coated with rust. I did once buy a used #4 that I could not get to work properly as the frog would not sit securely on the sole, no matter how tightly I screwed everything down. I’ve also had good luck with used planes; just saying that it can be hit or miss buying on Ebay. If you’re looking for a rough stock plane, then you can likely get away with finding something on auction sites, etc. Just be sure all of the parts are there; you’ll end up spending a lot more money if you have to hunt for screws, totes, etc.

    Restored: Patrick Leach sends out a mailing list of old tools each month; I have not bought from him, but he has a very good reputation of filtering out the junk tools. You’ll pay a bit more, but you’ll get something that will be complete and work as intended. After some honing of the blade, you’d be all set. Recommended if you are going the general purpose route. There are other such vendors as well.

    New: Obviously, the most expensive path. Keep in mind that no matter which brand you buy, you’ll still have to hone the blade to final sharpness, but that is really no more than a 2-3 minute task. WoodRiver is a good deal on the lower end, Veritas slightly more expensive but better quality, and Lie Nielsen being even higher price and higher quality build. If you are just looking for something for rough prep, however, not sure new is necessary.

    A quick note on sizes: Almost any plane can be used to do almost any task. Paul uses the #4 for most tasks; the same could apply to a #5 jack. Again, a lot comes down to personal preferences.

    Finally, if you are looking at a general purpose use, then you’d probably want to get a couple of extra blades:

    – Heavily cambered blade (8″ radius or so) for rough stock removal.

    – Lightly cambered blade for edge jointing and smoothing work. And, if you only have funds for one blade, start with this, as it can be used for stock removal as well.

    – Straight blade for shooting board work.


    A couple of questions: is this your first plane purchase? Or do you have a specific use in mind for this plane? Are you looking for new or used? Anyway, some thoughts from a beginner:

    IMHO, low-angle vs. standard jack plane is mostly a matter of personal preference. Both will plane wood. Both have their advantages and drawbacks, but to be honest, they are fairly minor.

    As you noted, most low angle jacks have an easy way to adjust the mouth opening. On a standard jack, you have to remove the lever cap, cap iron, and blade to get at the screws that loosen the frog, and then maneuver a screw driver between the frog and the tote to get at the frog adjustment screw to adjust the mouth opening. To be honest, it sounds worse than it is, and you don’t do it often, so it’s really not that big of a deal.

    Advantages of the standard jack is the lateral adjustment lever, and the location of the depth adjustment knob. Most low angle planes require either a hammer or set screw to make lateral adjustments, and the depth adjuster is a bit less convenient.

    A low angle jack is indeed nice for shooting end grain. The lower angle of a cut of a 25 degree iron (38 degrees vs. 45 degrees) does make the low angle slightly easier to use on end grain.
    However, in most cases, you can shoot end grain just as well on a standard jack. Planing end grain is mostly about having a sharp iron and using proper technique to prevent blowout, and that applies to both types of planes.

    The advantage of the low angle jack is that you can use a blade sharpened to a high angle and get a cutting angle that is well above the 45 degree angle found on the Stanley planes. The higher angle can help avoid tearout on difficult grained woods. Doing the same on the standard angle jack requires honing a back bevel on the blade; I’ve never done that, but I’ve heard it can be tricky for the inexperienced. And changing blades on a low angle jack is easier than the standard jack, as you have no cap iron to deal with (although I consider that a very minor difference).

    OTOH, there are other ways of avoiding tearout besides a higher cutting angle: use a freshly sharpened blade, and skew the plane to the direction of cut, and take a lighter cut each pass. My inexpert opinion is that I’m not sure there is much need for the high angle plane until you start working regularly with difficult woods.

    Full disclosure: I have both, and I do actually like my low angle jack, despite what I said above. It’s a versatile plane, and for certain tasks it has a nice feel in my hands (a very subjective assessment subject to personal preferences). It’s just not really the panacea the adverts and internet forums and blogs make it out to be. Technique and keep the cutting iron sharp make a bigger difference. If you can, see if you can find a local woodworking store where you can try both out. They do feel different, and you may find yourself liking one better than the other.


    Can I ask why you put the XX-fine diamond stone in the loss column? I am thinking of getting one for those cases where I want a finer polish than I get with the x-fine. I currently use an 8000 grit waterstone, but I would love to get away from waterstones completely. The other option is to do without the 8000 grit altogether and simply rely on the strop, so any thoughts you can share would be greatly appreciated.

    Agree with you on the fussiness of the Veritas honing jigs. The Eclipse guide works so much better and is much cheaper. And now that I’m transitioning to freehand sharpening, I don’t mind leaving the $12 Eclipse guide sitting off to the side.


    Yes, the head came from an African mahogany blank that I picked up at a local Woodcraft store. The handle is Honduran mahogany. Probably will make something a little less “beater” the next time I use the wood.

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