1. While there are moisture resistant PVA glues, only polyurethane and in particular epoxy glue are water resistant. Many brands of the former do not lend themselves well to furniture joinery (though there appear to be some that do better), and the latter are comparatively expensive.

      If frost resistance also is required, then polyurethane glues are perhaps the only alternative. The ones I’ve used could be sanded and planed, but the joint lines were quite “outlined” by the glue.

      1. There are a couple old fashion glues that are still used in boat building and wooden aircraft building that are alternatives

        The first is resourcenol glues. Some brands are Aerodux and Cascophen, athought there are several others. These glues are gap filling and very waterproof, in my youth they were considered totally suitable below waterline on boats. These are usually two part formulations and you add water.

        The second type is a somewhat related plastic resin glues.
        Cascamite, Aerolite, Balcotan, and weldwood 203 are good enough to use above waterline. They are sometimes known as urea formaldehyde glues.
        They are a dry powder mixed with water to activate.

        All of these contain formaldehyde, so I don’t recommend them inside, but the ougassing doesn’t last all that long and would be fine outside. These glues have a long open time, so if you think getting all the bits together will take a while, they are a good choice. The older formulations had way too much formaldehyde to ensure total activation. The newer formulations are more balanced.

        The downsides to these glues are several, and why people went to epoxies.
        They are really messy and sticky, so old clothes and gloves are a must.
        They are hard to mix, the urea is a crystalline powder and will feel gritty if you aren’t thorough in your mixing.
        They require high clamping pressure for a day or so, so if you are shy on clamps, use an alternative.

        1. I remember a glue we used in shop class when I was a kid. It was mixed from powder and water, was purple, and gritty. It was for a bird feeder. I wonder if it was one of the glues you mentioned?

          1. Es- It’s quite possible your purple glue was resourcenol or plastic resin glue. They came in several shades of red-brown and also a whitish- clear.
            I should have mentioned resourcenol still has a use for roof rafters and areas of high heat where they are better than epoxies or PVA’s, and a form of them is what is used in gluelams and microlams. Also, they don’t creep like the other glues can.

            Clean up well. The dried glue is hell on tool edges.

          2. It’s the glue my father used to use for just about all projects: resorcinol-formaldehyde glue. Two components, a white powder and a purplish syrup-like liquid.

            Back in 1996 it was hard to get this glue via the regular channels (of the local brand ‘Bison’), but I managed to source some for him via an aircraft supply-house; the same glue was used in glider maintenance (aviation is notoriously conservative, for good reasons). I believe the glue was called ‘Aerodux’, from memory. This was 25 years ago, perhaps resorcinol-glue has now been completely phased out for aviation use as well.

            Though I wonder if the purple glue used in plywood isn’t resorcinol glue as well.

    2. I’ve used Titebond III a few times for outdoor furniture and bird houses. All holding up well after 5 years. Its rated for exterior use but not for below waterline and claims ANSI type I water resistance.

  1. I seldom question a design but I tend to shy away from fasteners if possible. I love the aspects of joinery without fasteners. On the center support, did you consider using a through tenon and wedge joint?

  2. Hi Team,
    I have a question with respect to peg positions for the drawbore. On the front legs the pegs for the long front bottom rail look to be about 3/4 inset from the inside face of the front leg. However the shaped side rails mortises going into the leg from the backside are also 3/4 inset to that same face and are 2” deep. For the peg to have equal wood on both sides it needs to go 3/4, through the half inch tenon and then another 3/4 inch for a total of 2”. The leg is 3.5” thick with a 2” mortise on the back side planar with the drawbore hole. Wouldn’t this mean the peg is being driven at least a half inch into the mortise tenon joint of the side rail and if so is that ok?

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